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: 09.09.2008
: 846
:

: #1   : 04, 2009 1:30 pm     : (. )



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.: (0462)-936226; 097-0017623


: ( 07, 2009 1:34 pm), 2 ()




: 09.09.2008
: 846
:

: #2   : 26, 2009 4:45 pm     :

: http://www.experts.in.ua/baza/analitic/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=37973&MID=3049#message3049

.

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.: (0462)-936226; 097-0017623
HOUSE MD



: 11.07.2009
: 102

: #3   : 14, 2009 2:40 pm     :

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AndreyN



: 09.09.2008
: 1380
: Kiev, UKRAINE

: #4   : 14, 2009 2:46 pm     :

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: 11.07.2009
: 102

: #5   : 14, 2009 3:05 pm     :

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: 09.09.2008
: 846
:

: #6   : 07, 2009 1:39 pm     :

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(EMWA) Elizabeth Wager 2007 , , (Benjamin Disraeli). , , : , , .

, , "" . , : . "-" , , , . .

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2008 , Kevin Strange, : " , , , " (Strange K., 2008, .569, ..). , . . .

50 (1945-1995 ..) , 1,8 (SD=0,Cool 1945 4,6 (SD=2,1) 1995. 43 % 1945 ., 3 % 1995 . (King J.T., 2000). , 1960 . 2004 . 2,4 2,5 2,0 5,3 5,0 3,1 , , , 9% 1960 . 0,03% 2004 . (Benos D.J., et al., 2005, p.67). 3669 , 1936 . 2006 ., . 5% 74% . . 4,5 1980 . 6,9 2000 ., 2,2 1966 . 4,4 1991 . (Modi P., 2008). 28 (1975-2002 .., 1861 ) , 1,9 (SD=1,4) 1975 . 3,9 (SD=1,2) 2002 . (Kakkar N., 2004). Indian J Pharmacol , , , (Raveendran R., 2004).



(ICMJE), 1985 : " , : " ( " ICMJE"). , 1997 , . 1998 . BMJ , . 2000 : American Journal of Public Health, Annals of Internal Medicine, Physical Therapy Radiology (Davidoff F., 2000). Radiology , .

: , , . , , .

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" , , , , " (ICMJE, 2008).

" . , " (Bhopal R., 1997).

" , , , " (Leash E., 1997).

" , , , ". (Bird S.J., 2003).

" . , , , , , " (Strange K., 2008).

" , , (the Research Assessment Exercise), , , , , - . , " (Newman A, Jones R, 2006, p.420).

" , " (Hren D., et al., 2007).

" . , " (Benos D.J., et al., 2005, p.65).

: " , , . , " (Guidelines for the Conduct of Research in the Intramural Research Program at NIH, 2007).

8(2,3%) 355 1991-1992 .. 59(10,7%) 551 1996-1997 .. (Wilcox L.J., 1998). , . 115 (450 , 78%) 1995 , (Hoen W.P., et al., 1998).

, . : " , ". , . , . , , .



. , , . , , ICMJE (2008). , , , .

ICMJE , (Council of Science Editors, CSE, http://www.councilscienceeditors.org) , . CSE (, 1996, , 1998, 1999) (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/leash_article.cfm). CSE " " (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/atf_references.cfm). " " CSE (CSE's White Paper, 2006).

(World Association of Medical Editors, WAME, http://www.wame.org/resources/publication-ethics-policies-for-medical-journals#study) .

, :

(National Institutes of Health, http://www1.od.nih.gov/oir/sourcebook/ethic-conduct/Conduct%20Research%206-11-07.pdf),

(http://www.pnas.org/site/misc/iforc_2009.pdf),

(Authorship Guidelines Faculty of Medicine, Harvard University, Bird SJ., 2003, http://www.hms.harvard.edu/fa/guide_doc.html, http://www.hms.harvard.edu/integrity/authorship.html, http://www.hms.harvard.edu/integrity/clinical.html),

(University Guidelines for the Responsible Conduct of Research at Yale University School of Medicine, http://grants.med.yale.edu/policies/guidelin.html),

(University of Michigan Medical School, http://www.responsibility.research.umich.edu/UMMSauthor.html),

(Washington University, http://www.wustl.edu/policies/authorship.html).

. , :

- ICMJE (Shapiro D.W., et al., 1994, Yank V., Rennie D., 1999, Bhopal R., et .al, 1997, King J.T., 2000, Hwang S.S., et al., 2003, Bates T., et al., 2004, Kakkar N., 2004, Pignatelli B, et al., 2005, Ilakovac V., et al., 2007, Hren H., et al., 2007, Modi P, et al., 2008);

- , (Smith J., 1994, Ganatra R.D., 1996, Raman T.S., 1998, Davidoff F., 2000, Rennie S.C., Crosby J.R., 2001, Vuckovic-Dekic L., 2003, Raveendran R., 2004, Strange K., 2008, Friedman P.J., http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/friedman_article.cfm);

- (Yank V., Rennie D., 1999, Hwang S.S., et al., 2003, Bates T., et al., 2004);

- (Benos D.J., et al. 2005, Albert T., Wager E., 2003);

- (Healy D., Cattell D., 2003, Wager E., 2007, Gotzsche PC, et al., 2007, Sismondo S., 2008).

( ) :

- JAMA (http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/data/293/14/1788/DC1/1, http://jama.ama-assn.org/misc/ifora.dtl, http://jama.ama-assn.org/misc/auinst_crit.pdf);

- The Lancet (http://download.thelancet.com/flatcontentassets/authors/lancet-information-for-authors.pdf);

- Annals of Internal Medicine (http://www.annals.org/shared/author_info.shtml, http://www.annals.org/shared/AuthorsForm.pdf);

- Arch ophthalmol (http://archotol.ama-assn.org/misc/auinst_crit.pdf);

- Neurology (http://www.neurology.org/misc/AuthorDiscl.pdf);

- Harvard University (http://www.hms.harvard.edu/fa/guide_doc.html);

- University of Michigan Medical School (http://www.msu.edu/~biomed/rcr/authorship.htm);

- PLoS Biology (http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/authors.php);

- Nature (Nature Publishing Group, 2006).



(Honorary or gift authorship) . "", , , (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.1Cool.

(Guest authorship) , , . (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.1Cool.

(ghost authorship) ICMJE . (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.1Cool.

(disclousere) , , (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.1Cool.

(contributorship) . , (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.19).

, (, ), (, , ) , ( , ). . , , , , , , (CSEs White Paper, 2006, p.19). .

(order of authorship) . , . , .

. , , ( ). , . .

(acknowledgments) , , , . , , , .

, , . , . , (Michigan Medical School, http://www.msu.edu/~biomed/rcr/authorship.htm).

(corresponding author) , . , (Callaham ML., 2003).



. . , . (ICMJE) 1985 .

:

1 , ;

2 .


, 25 ICMJE, . 1992 N Engl J Med : " , , , , , , , , " (Pinching A.J., 1992).

, , , . , . , (Flanagin A, 1998).

The Lancet ( 1997), , . , , , n=852 n=650. , , " " (Yank V., Rennie D., 1999).

. , . BMJ, , , (Smith J., 1994).

. , , . , , . , . , , . , (Kakkar N., 2004). - Ganatra R.D. (1996). , . , , , , .. : " , , - . , - , ".

, R.Raveendran, Indian J Pharmacol, , . , , : ; , ; ( ) , , , , . , " , / , , , . , , " (Raveendran R., 2004).

Eastwood et al. (1996), 38% , , 37% , , , 20% , . 32% 324 , ICMJE, . 75% , .

(Bhopal R., 1997, Grigg J., 2005). L.S.Kwok " ". , (misconduct) (Kwok L.S., 2005). , 26 % ICMJE (Shapiro D.W., et al., 1994).

Strange K. .

" " (coercive authorship) , . , , , , , .

" " (mutual support) , (Strange K., 2008).

39 ( ) , 59 % , 64 % , (Pignatelli B., 2005).

201 , , , . , (Rennie S.C., Crosby J.R., 2001).

, , . (Davidoff F., 2000).

JAMA Gomez-Alonso J.,(2004) , " , ". ( -) .

, , .

ICMJE. , ICMJE. .

Raj Bhopal (1997) 66- ICMJE . Lancet 1997 . (121 ) , 44% , 60% , (Yank V., Rennie D., 1999). Shapiro D.W., et al. (1994 .), . ( ), , ICMJE, (Pignatelli B., 2005).

, , ? , 95% ( ) , . , , . , , , , .

: , , , " ". , " ". , ? , . , . , , , : " , ".

. , , . , . Richard Smith, BMJ, (Smith R., 2005). ( ) . (2007) 44 1994-1995 , 75% (95%- 60%-87%). 91% (95%- 78%-98%), , "" (Gotzsche P.C., et al., 2007).

ICMJE , . " , , , " (Editorial, 2001).

Sergio Sismondo (2008) . , , .

, , . , . , , , The International Publication Planning Association (TIPPA, http://www.publicationplanningassociation.org/about.aspx), International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (SMPP, http://www.ismpp.org/), The Center for Business Intelligence (CBI, http://www.cbinet.com/).

. . 2003 Healy D. Cattell D. , 85 Sertraline (Pfizer) , , . 250 , (Merck), , , , (Ross J.S., et al., 2008).

Gerald Schatten , . , , G.Schatten , . , , (Strange K., 2008).



ICMJE , , " , , .". , (Yank V., Rennie D., 1999, Bates T., 2004, Hren H., et al., 2007). , , (Friedman, Paul J. A New Standard for Authorship http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/friedman_article.cfm).

. , , , , , , , .

, ICMJE , GPP ( ) , " ". , , , , , , . , . , , - ( ), .

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, , , . . ICMJE , , " , , ". , Nature . , : " , . . . , , , , " (Nature Publishing Group, 2006).

. , , , , . , .

, . , , . , , .

, , , . JAMA Drummond Rennie (2000) : " JAMA . . . , ".

2001 , JAMA - . , , . , , " " (http://www.umj.com.ua/archive/59/pdf/108_rus.pdf, http://www.umj.com.ua/archive/52/pdf/248_rus.pdf). .

. . , . , ( ) . , ?



, . ICMJE, . , , . , . , . , (ICMJ, CSE, WAME .), , , , .

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Albert T., Wager E. (2003) How to handle authorship disputes: a guide for new researchers. The COPE Report 2003, p.32-34.
Authorship Guidelines Faculty of Medicine, Harvard University (http://www.hms.harvard.edu/fa/guide_doc.html ).
Bates T., Ani A., Marui M., Marui A. (2004) Authorship Criteria and Disclosure of Contributions Comparison of 3 General Medical Journals With Different Author Contribution Forms. JAMA, 292: 86-88.
Benos D.J., Fabres J., Farmer J., et al. (2005) Ethics and scientific publication. Adv Physiol Educ, 29: 59-74.
Bhopal R., Rankin J., Rankin E., et al. (1997) The vexed question of authorship: views of researchers in a British medical faculty. BMJ, 314: 1009.
Bird S.J. (2003) Credit and Responsibility in Science. Authorship Guidelines Faculty of Medicine, Harvard University, Spring (http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Health-Sciences-and-Technology/HST-502Survival-Skills-for-Researchers--The-Responsible-Conduct-of-ResearchSpring2003/4DEDEB8F-8D20-45C8-82D1-DF77F9E59688/0/5creditand.pdf).
Callaham M.L. (2003) Journal policy on ethics in scientific publication. Ann Emerg Med 41: 82-89.
CSE's White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Editorial Policy Committee (2005-2006), Council of Science Editors (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/editorial_policies/whitepaper/entire_whitepaper.pdf).
Davidoff F. (2000) for the CSE Task Force on Authorship. Who's the Author? Problems with Biomedical Authorship, and Some Possible Solutions. Sci Edit, 4(23): 111-119.
Editorial (2001) Sponsorship, authorship and accountability. MJA, 175: 294-296.
Friedman P.J. A New Standard for Authorship (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/friedman_article.cfm).
Ganatra R. D. (1996) Ethics of authorship of scientific papers Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. Issues in Medical Ethics, 4(3):78-80 (http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/043mi078.html).
Gomez-Alonso J. (2004) Author! Author! JAMA, 292(15):1815.
Gotzsche P.C., Hrobjartsson A., Johansen H.K., Haahr M.T., Altman D.G., et al. (2007) Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials. PLoS Med 4: e19 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0040019).
Grigg J. (2005) Good research conduct. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90: 229-232.
Guidelines for the Conduct of Research in the Intramural Research Program at NIH (2007). National Institutes of Health (http://www1.od.nih.gov/oir/sourcebook/ethic-conduct/Conduct%20Research%206-11-07.pdf).
Healy D., Cattell D. (2003) Interface between authorship, industry and science in the domain of therapeutics. Br J Psychiatry, 183: 22-27 (http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/183/1/22?etoc).
Hoen W.P., Walvoort H.C., John A., Overbeki P.M. (1998) What Are the Factors Deterr Authorship and the Order of the Authors' Names? A Study Among Authors of the Nederlands 'voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicin). JAMA, 280(3): 217-218.
Hren H., Sambunjak D., Ivani A., Marui M., Marui A. (2007) Perceptions of authorship criteria: effects of student instruction and scientific experience. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33: 428-432.
Hwang S.S., Song H.H., Baik J.H., et al. (2003) Researcher Contributions and Fulfillment of ICMJE Authorship Criteria: Analysis of Author Contribution Lists in Research Articles with Multiple Authors Publishe. Radiology, 226:16-23.
Ilakovac V., Fister K., Marusic M., Marusic F. (2007) Reliability of disclosure forms of authors' contributions. CMAJ, 176: 41-46 (http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/abstract/176/1/41).
Kakkar N. (2004) Authorship trends in the Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology: going the global way? Journal of Clinical Pathology 57: 670.
King J.T. (2000) How many neurosurgeons does it take to write a research article? Authorship proliferation in neurosurgical research. Neurosurgery, 47(2): 435-440.
Kwok L.S. (2005) The White Bull effect: abusive coauthorship and publication parasitism. J Med Ethics, 31: 554-556.
Leash E. (1997) Is it time for a new approach to authorship? J Dent Res, 76: 724-727.
Modi P., Hassan A., Teng C.J. (2008) How many cardiac surgeons does it take to write a research article? Seventy years of authorship proliferation and internationalization in the cardiothoracic surgical literature. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 136: 4-6.
Nature Publishing Group. Ethics and fraud (2006) Nature, 439: 117-118 (http://sps.nus.edu.sg/~kohchinw/Retraction/Ethics%20and%20fraud%20-%20Three%20cheers%20for%20peers.pdf).
Newman A., Jones R. (2006) Authorship of research papers: ethical and professional issues for short-term researchers. J. Med. Ethics, 32: 420-423.
Pignatelli B., Maisonneuve H., Chapuis F. (2005) Authorship ignorance: views of researchers in French clinical settings. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31: 578-581.
Pinching A.J. (1992) On authorship and acknowledgments [letter]. N Engl J Med, 326: 1084-1085.
Raman T.S. (1998) Authorship: The Debate. Indian pediatrics, 35: 139-144 (http://medind.nic.in/ibv/t98/i2/ibvt98i2p139.pdf).
Raveendran R. (2004) Abuse of authorship. Indian J Pharmacol, 36(3): 131-132.
Rennie D., Flanagin A., Yank V. (2000) The contribution of Authors. JAMA, 284: 89-91.
Rennie S.C., Crosby J.R. (2001) Are "tomorrow's doctors" honest? Questionnaire study exploring medical students' attitudes and reported behaviour on academic misconduct. BMJ, 322: 274-275 (http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/322/7281/274).
Ross J.S., Hill K.P., Egilman D.S., Krumholz H.M. (2008) Guest Authorship and Ghostwriting in Publications Related to Rofecoxib. JAMA, 299(15): 1800-1812 (http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/299/15/1800).
Shapiro D.W., Wenger N.S., Shapiro M.F. (1994) The contributions of authors to multiauthored biomedical research papers. J Am Med Assoc, 271: 438-442.
Sismondo S. (2008) Ghost Management: How Much of the Medical Literature Is Shaped Behind the Scenes by the Pharmaceutical Industry? PLoS Med, 4(9) (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1989751).
Smith J. (1994) Gift authorship: a poisoned chalice? [editorial] Br Med J 309: 1456-1457.
Smith R. (2005) Medical journals are an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies Plos Medicine, 2(5): 0364-0366.
Strange K. (2008) Authorship: why not just toss a coin? Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 295: 567-575.
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (2008) (http://www.icmje.org/).
University of Michigan Medical School guidelines for the responsible conduct of research (2007). The Regents of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (http://www.responsibility.research.umich.edu/UMMSauthor.html).
Vuckovic-Dekic L. (2003) Authorship-coauthorship. Archive of Oncology, 11(3): 211-212.
Wager E (2007) Authors, Ghosts, Damned Lies, and Statisticians. PLoS Med 4(1): e34 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040034).
Wilcox L.J. (1998) Authorship. The Coin of the Realm, The Source of Complaints. JAMA, 280(3): 216-217.
Yank V., Rennie D. (1999) Disclosure of Researcher Contributions: A Study of Original Research Articles in The Lancet. Academia and clinic. 130(Cool: 661-670.



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